Category Archives: Molecular Biology

The evolutionary construction and magnification of the human brain

Our brains are 3 times the size of the chimp and more complex.  Now that we have the complete genome sequences of both (and other monkeys) it is possible to look for the protein coding genes which separate us.

First some terminology.  Not every species found since the divergence of man and chimp is our direct ancestor.  Many banches are extinct.  The whole group of species are called hominins [Nature vol. 422 pp. 849 – 857 ‘ 03 ].  Hominids are species in the path between us and the chimp — sort of a direct line of descent.  However the terminology is in flux and confusing and I’m not sure this is right.   But we do need some terminology to proceed.

Hominid Specific genes (HS genes) result which result from recent gene duplications in hominid/human genomes.  Gene duplication is a great way for evolution to work quickly.  Even if one gene is essential, messing with the other copy won’t be fatal.  HS genes include >20 gene families that are dynamically expressed during the formation of the human brain.  It was hard for me to find out just how many HS genes there are.

Here are some examples. The human-specific NOTCH2NL genes increase the self-renewal potential of human cortical progenitors (meaning more brain cell can result from them).  TBC1D3and ARGHAP11B, are involved in basal progenitor amplification (ditto).

A recent paper [ Neuron vol. 111 pp. 65 – 80 ’23 ] discusses CROCCP2 (you don’t want to know what the acronym stands for) which is one of several genes in this family with at least 6 copies in various hominid genomes.  However, CROCCP2 is a duplicate unique to man.   It is highly expressed during brain development and enhances outer Radial Glial Cell progenitor proliferation.

The mechanism by which this happens is detailed in the paper and involves the cilium found on every neuron, mTOR, IFT20 and others.

But that’s not the point here, fascinating although these mechanisms are.   We’re watching a series of at least gene duplications with subsequent modifications build the brain that is unique to us over relatively rapid evolutionary times.  The split between man and chimp is thought to have happened only 8 million years ago.

What should we call this process?  Evolution?  The Creator in action? The Blind Watchmaker?   It is certainly is eerie to think about.  There are 17 more HS genes to go involving in building our brains remaining to be worked out.  Stay tuned

Finally, an article in the press that’s not a hit piece on Cassava

Cassava Biosciences has had the worst press imaginable with hit pieces in the Wall Street Journal, Science magazine, the New Yorker and the New York Times.  Finally Nature News has a balanced article showing how the shorts have been attacking the company and its drug —

I’d written about this before and that post can be found after the ***

The Nature article discusses concerns by Elizabeth McNally editor of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, that journals are being manipulated by short sellers claiming that an article is fraudulent.

“Typically, when a whistle-blower contacts a journal about concerns over manipulated images or otherwise questionable data, the allegations are taken on good faith, McNally told Nature. The idea that whistle-blowers could be doing this for their own financial gain “was very eye-opening to me”, she says.”

One particular criticism of Cassava found in the Nature article is rather amusing. “Amid the allegations about Cassava’s data, researchers have expressed concern over how Simufilam works. Aside from the preliminary studies by Cassava and its collaborators, the strategy of stablilizing filamin-A to tackle Alzheimer’s hasn’t been on anyone’s radar, says George Perry, an Alzheimer’s researcher at the University of Texas at San Antonio. “The fact that it hasn’t been widely studied means that it hasn’t been confirmed.”

The fact that filamin-A hasn’t been on anyone’s radar is actually in its favor, since aBeta, the great white whale of Alzheimer’s research has been impaled with multiple expensive harpoons, with minimal benefit to patients.

The Nature article notes that some of the FDA petitioners wanted the Simulfilam studies stopped, something any drug company with a competing product for Alzheimer’s might wish, but should never ask for.


The copy of this post was changed to respond to the valid criticisms of Dr. Elizabeth Bik.


Cassava shorts should be worried

Yesterday, 1 November ’22, a blockbuster  article was published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation (JCI) written by its editor Elizabeth McNally —

It is just over a year ago since the first of the articles attacking Cassava Sciences appeared.  The first was in the New Yorker which profiled Jordan Thomas as the second coming of Christ for exposing supposed fraudulent data published by Cassava principals —

Radden Keefe P. The Bounty Hunter. The New Yorker. Updated January 17, 2022. Accessed October 11, 2022.

There were similar articles in Science — 2022;377(6604):358–363

and the New York Times

They relied on the same assertions given to the FDA asking that the clinical trials be stopped because of ‘danger’ to the patients.

It’s worth reading McNally’s article completely.  It isn’t very long.

A few highlights (“the Journal” refers to the JCI)

“Throughout 2022, the Journal has been repeatedly contacted to comment on the 2012 JCI paper. Although we cannot be certain, there now appear to be new “short and distorters.” A recent round of emails was sent simultaneously to multiple journals and editors, identifying 25 articles with potential problems and providing recommendations on how the journals should respond. Importantly, these accusatory emails do not identify any financial conflicts of interest on the part of the whistleblowers. The emails insist that an investigation begin within 24 hours and request that the journals update them on investigative progress. As an editor, I am expressing concern because this represents a new means of manipulating the scientific publishing industry.”

So journal editors are like docs. They talk to each other to find out what’s really going on.  It is likely that McNally called up other journal editors to find out if her experience was common.

Here is why those sending the eMails should not sleep well of a night.

“Last, if the Journal uncovers allegations made for the purposes of stock manipulation, with evidence of misinformation, the JCI may elect to express its concern to the US Securities and Exchange Commission or the Department of Justice.”

It’s about time.

Whether the ‘whistle-blowers’ are guilty of anything will be determined by the suits (from investors losing money on Cassava, or perhaps Cassava itself) which are almost sure to follow.

As some of you know, I think Cassava’s data is even better than they realize. Be warned the following link is long, detailed and will require your concentration  —

Tubulin needs a lot of help from its friends

Our neurons (and us) would be the size of amoebas if weren’t for tubulin which forms the superhighways (microtubules) along which cargo is shipped to the end of axons.   Your average NBA player has axons over 3 feet long going from his sacral spinal cord to his calf muscles.   Split the difference and call it a meter.  Diffusion is way too slow to get anything that far. The trucks schlepping things back and forth on the microtubular highway are called Kinesin and dynein. I think in terms of nanoMeters (10^-9 meters).  Each tubulin dimer is 80 nanoMeters long, and K & D essentially jump from one to the other in 80 nanoMeter steps.

How many jumps do Kinesin and Dynein have to make to go a meter? Just 10^9/80 — call it 10,000,000. Kinesin and Dynein also have to jump from one microtubule to another, as the longest microtubule in our division is at most 100 microns (.1 milliMeter).  So even in the best of cases they have to make at least 10,000 transfers between microtubules.  It’s a miracle they get the job done at all.

To put this in perspective, consider a tractor trailer (not a truck — the part with the motor is the tractor, and the part pulled is the trailer — the distinction can be important, just like the difference between rifle and gun as anyone who’s been through basic training knows quite well).  Say the trailer is 48 feet long, and let that be comparable to the 80 nanoMeters Kinesin and Dynein have to jump. That’s 10,000,000 jumps of 48 feet or 90,909 miles.  It’s amazing they get the job done.

Now that you’re sufficiently impressed with tubulin’s importance, it’s time to see why it needs help.  First a bit of history.  Christian Anfinsen was a Swarthmore football player who happened to win the Nobel prize 50 years ago for his work on the protein ribonuclease, an enzyme.  If you heat it, enzymatic activity is lost (the protein is said to be denatured).  This is because the exact 3 dimensional path of the protein backbone forming the catalytic site of ribonuclease was lost. However if you leave the denatured protein alone (under the proper conditions) it folds back up to the correct 3 dimensional shape.  His point was that the amino acid sequence of the protein was all that was needed to determine ‘the’ three dimensional shape of the protein.  This was at a time when we didn’t know that most proteins have a variety of shapes not just one.

Unfortunately tubulin does not fold up to the shape found in microtubules.  It needs significant help from two friends, prefoldin and TRiC.  TRiC is a monster conglomerate of 2 copies each of 8 different proteins with a molecular mass over 1,000,000 Daltons (e.g. a megaDalton).  What is one Dalton — it’s the mass of a hydrogen atom.   TRiC is made of two back to back rings (with built in lids) each ring consisting of 8 different but related proteins).  Each of the proteins has a domain which binds ATP and a domain which binds the protein to be folded.  There is a central cavity 90 x 90 x 50 Angstroms in size.  Since each hydrogen atom is about 1 Angstrom in diameter, it can fit 405,000 hydrogen atoms inside, or about 200,000 carbons, hydrogens, oxygens and nitrogens — enough room for most proteins.

Prefoldin is equally amazing.  It basically looks like a Portuguese man o’ war —  It is made of 2 copes of one protein and 4 of another.  The tentacles are long alpha helices projecting down from the body.

The tentacles interact with tubulin, carrying it in an unstructured form, thrusting one of its tentacles into the central chamber of TRiC carrying unstructured tubulin with it.   ATP addition leads to lid closure and tubulin encapsulation in the chamber.

A magnificent paper [ Cell vol. 185 pp. 4770 – 4787 ’22 ] describes what happens to tubulin in the TRiC chamber at near atomic resolution.  They are literally watching tubulin fold as it passes from one of the 8 different proteins making up the TRiC ring to another.  The disordered carboxy terminal chains of TRiC are postulated to function as a tethered solvent allowing the intially disordered amino acid sequence of tubulin, to slither into their correct positions more easily.

I’m sure it’s behind a paywall, but if you can look at the figures in the paper, you’ll be bound to be impressed.

So Anfinsen turned out to be wrong, and some 10%  of newly translated proteins turn our to need TRiC’s help.  And yet he wasn’t, because AlphaFold uses only the amino acid sequence of proteins to predict their three dimensional structure.

One further point.  The ancestral bacterial protein for tubulin is called FtsZ.  It happily folds to the correct structure by itself.  However tubulin developed new domains, some of which are for the motor proteins Dynein and Kinesin, and others are for microtubule associated proteins such as tau, the major component of the neurofibrillary tangle of Alzheimer’s disease. These domains are on the surface of the protein, making it harder to fold by itself.

All this information would have been impossible to get 10 years ago, and it’s all due to the sharpening of our technological tools.

A few Thanksgiving thankyou’s

The following was published 5 years ago, but with time and ever more research our organization seems even more miraculous (see last paragraph).  It’s amazing that it lasts as long as it does, and for that we should be thankful.   Call this prayer if you wish.

As CEO of a very large organization, it’s time to thank those unsung divisions that make it all possible.  Fellow CEOs should take note and act appropriately regardless of the year it’s been for them.

First: thanks to the guys in shipping and receiving.  Kinesin moves the stuff out and Dynein brings it back home.  Think of how far they have to go.  The head office sits in area 4 of the cerebral cortex and K & D have to travel about 3 feet down to the motorneurons in the first sacral segment of the spinal cord controlling the gastrocnemius and soleus, so the boss can press the pedal on his piano when he wants. Like all good truckers, they travel on the highway.  But instead of rolling they jump.  The highway is pretty lumpy being made of 13 rows of tubulin dimers.

Now chemists are very detail oriented and think in terms of Angstroms (10^-10 meters) about the size of a hydrogen atom. As CEO and typical of cell biologists, I have to think in terms of the big picture, so I think in terms of nanoMeters (10^-9 meters).  Each tubulin dimer is 80 nanoMeters long, and K & D essentially jump from one to the other in 80 nanoMeter steps.  Now the boss is shrinking as he gets older, but my brothers working for players in the NBA have to go more than a meter to contract the gastrocnemius and soleus (among other muscles) to help their bosses jump.  So split the distance and call the distance they have to go one Meter.  How many jumps do Kinesin and Dynein have to make to get there? Just 10^9/80 — call it 10,000,000. The boys also have to jump from one microtubule to another, as the longest microtubule in our division is at most 100 microns (.1 milliMeter).  So even in the best of cases they have to make at least 10,000 transfers between microtubules.  It’s a miracle they get the job done at all.

To put this in perspective, consider a tractor trailer (not a truck — the part with the motor is the tractor, and the part pulled is the trailer — the distinction can be important, just like the difference between rifle and gun as anyone who’s been through basic training knows quite well).  Say the trailer is 48 feet long, and let that be comparable to the 80 nanoMeters K and D have to jump. That’s 10,000,000 jumps of 48 feet or 90,909 miles.  It’s amazing they get the job done.

Second: Thanks to probably the smallest member of the team.  The electron.  Its brain has to be tiny, yet it has mastered quantum mechanics because it knows how to tunnel through a potential barrier.   In order to produce the fuel for K and D it has to tunnel some 20 Angstroms from the di-copper center (CuA) to heme a in cytochrome C oxidase (COX).  Is the electron conscious? Who knows?  I don’t tell it what to do.   Now COX is just a part of one of our larger divisions, the power plant (the mitochondrion).

Third: The power plant.  Amazing to think that it was once (a billion years or more ago) a free living bacterium.  Somehow back in the mists of time one of our predecessors captured it.  The power plant produces gas (ATP) for the motors to work.  It’s really rather remarkable when you think of it.   Instead of carrying a tank of ATP, kinesin and dynein literally swim in the stuff, picking it up from the surroundings as they move down the microtubule.  Amazingly the entire division doesn’t burn up, but just uses the ATP when and where needed.  No spontaneous combustion.

There are some other unsung divisions to talk about (I haven’t forgotten you ladies in the steno pool, and your incredible accuracy — 1 mistake per 100,000,000 letters [ Science vol. 328 pp. 636 – 639 ’10 ]).  But that’s for next time.

To think that our organization arose by chance, working by finding a slightly better solution to problems it face boggles this CEO’s mind (but that’s the current faith — so good to see such faith in an increasingly secular world).

Call the thankfulness of the CEO prayer if you wish.

Addendum 29 November ’22 — from a friend “We also have to thank all the tau molecules that stabilize the microtubules— until the misbehavior of ERK and JNK1 overdecorate them with holiday lighting (phosphates) and they fall apart. So after Thanksgiving, be careful not to overcommercialize the holiday season.”

The cryoEM work of the last 5 years has shown us the structure of large molecular machines made of multiple proteins, DNAs and RNAs which are even more impressive (to me) than single protein structure.   One example [ Nature vol. 609 pp. 630 – 639 ’22 ] shows the Holliday junction which allows strand migration between the strands of two DNA duplexes.   Pictured is the complex from bacteria which is confined in a rectangle with sides 220 and 120 Angstroms (not sure how thick it is).  The complex contains a molecular motor which slides the junction.  You could spend your life just studying this one structure.  It’s hard for me to see how it arose.


MicroExons have been known for a long time.  They are hard to find using the usual software tools because they are short, coding for just 1 (!) to 9 amino acids (3 – 27 nucleotides).  The neurologist is interested in them, because they are enriched in neurons.


The evolutionist is interested in them because they are found on the surfaces of proteins, so that adding their amino acids potentially modifies protein protein interactions (example later) since these are largely determined at the protein surface.  The typical protein interface is said to be a surface of 1,000 – 2,000 square Angstroms, so putting a few amino acids in the surface can change things radically.   Not only that, but alanine scanning of the interfaces shows that only a small set of ‘hot spot’ amino acids contribute to the free energy of binding at the protein/protein interface.  (Hot spots are operationally defined as an amino acid, that when mutated to alanine leads to a greater than 10fold drop in the binding constant).  Let’s hear it for the blind watchmaker for figuring out a way to accelerate evolution by moderating protein protein interactions directly.

It is interesting  that the vast majority of microexons contain multiples of 3 nucleotides (this prevents them from producing a frameshift in the mRNA in which they are found).  This implies that natural selection is at work on them.

Most microExons show high inclusion rates at late stages of neuronal differentiation in genes associated with axon formation and synapse function.  One example — a neural specific microExon in Protrudin increases its interaction with Vesicle Associated Membrane protein VAMP) to promote neurite outgrowth.

A protein called SRRM4 controls the inclusion of most neuronal microexons known so far.  Of all known tissue types the human retina has the largest program of tissue enriched microExons .  Some of these microexons are found only in photoreceptor cells. Ectopic expression of SRRM4 is enough to drive the inclusion of most retinal microExons in nonphotorector cells.

For lots of current references on microExons, particularly those in the retina, please see Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 119 e2117090119 ’22

I haven’t been posting for a while because of a computer disaster.  All of the notes I’ve taken on the literature and elsewhere were on an old iMac running HyperCard (which just crashed). As my son was told at USC, there are two types of disc drives.  Those that have crashed, and those that haven’t crashed (yet).  I’ve got another one, but I’m busy programming to transfer the data and metadata to Mathematica.  There is plenty to post about, which should be forthcoming.

Bye bye stoichiometry

I’m republishing this old post from 2018, to refresh my memory (and yours) about liquid liquid phase separation before writing a new post on one of the most interesting papers I’ve read in recent years.  The field has exploded since this was written.

Until recently, developments in physics basically followed earlier work by mathematicians Think relativity following Riemannian geometry by 40 years.  However in the past few decades, physicists have developed mathematical concepts before the mathematicians — think mirror symmetry which came out of string theory — You may skip the following paragraph, but here is what it meant to mathematics — from a description of a 400+ page book by Amherst College’s own David A. Cox

Mirror symmetry began when theoretical physicists made some astonishing predictions about rational curves on quintic hypersurfaces in four-dimensional projective space. Understanding the mathematics behind these predictions has been a substantial challenge. This book is the first completely comprehensive monograph on mirror symmetry, covering the original observations by the physicists through the most recent progress made to date. Subjects discussed include toric varieties, Hodge theory, Kahler geometry, moduli of stable maps, Calabi-Yau manifolds, quantum cohomology, Gromov-Witten invariants, and the mirror theorem. This title features: numerous examples worked out in detail; an appendix on mathematical physics; an exposition of the algebraic theory of Gromov-Witten invariants and quantum cohomology; and, a proof of the mirror theorem for the quintic threefold.

Similarly, advances in cellular biology have come from chemistry.  Think DNA and protein structure, enzyme analysis.  However, cell biology is now beginning to return the favor and instruct chemistry by giving it new objects to study. Think phase transitions in the cell, liquid liquid phase separation, liquid droplets, and many other names (the field is in flux) as chemists begin to explore them.  Unlike most chemical objects, they are big, or they wouldn’t have been visible microscopically, so they contain many, many more molecules than chemists are used to dealing with.

These objects do not have any sort of definite stiochiometry and are made of RNA and the proteins which bind them (and sometimes DNA).  They go by any number of names (processing bodies, stress granules, nuclear speckles, Cajal bodies, Promyelocytic leukemia bodies, germline P granules.  Recent work has shown that DNA may be compacted similarly using the linker histone [ PNAS vol.  115 pp.11964 – 11969 ’18 ]

The objects are defined essentially by looking at them.  By golly they look like liquid drops, and they fuse and separate just like drops of water.  Once this is done they are analyzed chemically to see what’s in them.  I don’t think theory can predict them now, and they were never predicted a priori as far as I know.

No chemist in their right mind would have made them to study.  For one thing they contain tens to hundreds of different molecules.  Imagine trying to get a grant to see what would happen if you threw that many different RNAs and proteins together in varying concentrations.  Physicists have worked for years on phase transitions (but usually with a single molecule — think water).  So have chemists — think crystallization.

Proteins move in and out of these bodies in seconds.  Proteins found in them do have low complexity of amino acids (mostly made of only a few of the 20), and unlike enzymes, their sequences are intrinsically disordered, so forget the key and lock and induced fit concepts for enzymes.

Are they a new form of matter?  Is there any limit to how big they can be?  Are the pathologic precipitates of neurologic disease (neurofibrillary tangles, senile plaques, Lewy bodies) similar.  There certainly are plenty of distinct proteins in the senile plaque, but they don’t look like liquid droplets.

It’s a fascinating field to study.  Although made of organic molecules, there seems to be little for the organic chemist to say, since the interactions aren’t covalent.  Time for physical chemists and polymer chemists to step up to the plate.

The silence is deafening

3 weeks ago I published a post about a paper that I thought would be a real bombshell, in effect contradicting a paper in a prestigious journal, and strongly arguing from real data that the pandemic virus could have been made in a lab, quite possibly Wuhan.  .

Absolutely nothing has happened. No letters to PNAS (the source of the article) to Cell (the source of the criticized study).  With a question of this magnitude and importance  you’d think Nature or Science would weigh in about it.  The origin of the pandemic virus is certainly they’ve covered extensively.

So I’m going to send this to all concerned and see if I get any feedback.

Here is the original post.

Evidence that the pandemic virus was made in a lab


Everyone knows that the Chinese have been less than forthcoming about the origin of the pandemic virus (SARS-CoV-2).  An article in the current Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences — arguesthat US data, which hasn’t been released, and some 290 pages of which has been redacted could shed a good deal of light on the subject (without any help from China).  One of the authors is an economist, but the other has serious biochemical chops —

Basically a variety of US institutions (see the paper — it’s freely available) have been working with the lab at Wuhan for years modifying the virus, long before the pandemic.  The paper names the names etc. etc. and is quite detailed, but I want to explain the evidence that the virus could have been produced (by human modification) at the Wuhan lab.  It has to do with a site in a viral protein which says ‘cut here’.

Here is more background than many readers will need, but the virus has affected us all and I want to make it accessible to as many as possible.

Proteins are linear strings of amino acids, just as this post is a linear sequence of letters, spaces and punctuation.

We have fewer amino acids (20 to be exact) than letters  and to save space each one has a one letter abbreviation (A for alanine V for valine, etc. etc.).  The spike protein (the SARS-CoV-2 protein binding to the receptor  for it on our cells) is quite long (1,273 amino acids all in a row).

Our genome codes for 588  proteins (called proteases) whose job it is to cut up other proteins. Obviously, it would be a disaster if they worked indiscriminately.  So each cuts at a particular sequence of amino acids. Think of the protease as a key and the sequence as a lock.  One protease called furin cuts in the middle of an 8 amino acid sequence RRAR’SVAS (R stands for aRginine and S for Serine).  This is called the furin cleavage site (FCS)

A paper (The origins of SARS-CoV-2: A critical review. Cell 184, 4848–4856 (2021) argued that the amino acid sequence of the FCS in SARS-CoV-2 is an unusual, nonstandard sequence for an FCS and that nobody in a laboratory would design such a novel FCS.  So, like many, I skimmed the paper and accepted its conclusions, as Cell is one of the premier molecular biology journals.

One final quote “The NIH has resisted the release of important evidence, such as the grant proposals and project reports of EHA, and has continued to redact materials released under FOIA, including a remarkable 290-page redaction in a recent FOIA release.”

Sounds like Watergate doesn’t it?


Watch this space

BMOR is a bad actor

RNA and proteins have long been known to interact, but classic molecular biology pretty much had proteins down as something that modified RNA function.   Not so for BMOR, a long nonCoding RNA (1,247 nucleotides) expressed in breast cancer cells metastatic to the brain.  BMOR binds to IRF3 (Interferon Regulatory factor 3) inhibiting its phosphorylation by TBK1 with subsequent movement to the nucleus where it stimulates interferon expression which then turns on hundreds of genes producing inflammation.  All this is described in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 119 e2200230119 ’22 —

May 26, 2022
119 (22) e2200230119
Not sure if it is behind a paywall.    Definitely worth a read because knocking down BMOR in breast cancer cells prevents them from spreading to the brain (probably  by using BMOR to turni off the brain’s immune response to them).  Even more interestingly, BMOR was found to be only substantially expressed in breast cancer metastasis to brain tissue versus breast cancer metastasis to nonbrain tissues.



Teleology as always raises its head.  What in the world is the normal function of BMOR?  It can’t be what it is doing in the animal model described here.  Why would a cell make something to help it kill the organism containing it?


Then of course, as is typical of all interesting research, larger questions are raised.  Are there other RNAs whose function is to modify protein function?  Remember that 75% of the genome is transcribed into RNA.  Most of this has been thought of as molecular chaff, like the turnings of a lathe.   Time pick up the chaff from the factory floor and give it a look.

Brilliant structural work on the Arp2/3 complex with actin filaments and why it makes me depressed

The Arp2/3 complex of 5 proteins forms side branches on existing actin filaments.  The following paper shows its beautiful structure along with movies.  Have a look — it’s open access.

Why should it make me depressed? Because I could spend the next week studying all the ins and outs of the structure and how it works without looking at anything else.  Similar cryoEM studies of other multiprotein machines are coming out which will take similar amounts of time.  Understanding how single enzymes work is much simpler, although similarly elegant — see Cozzarelli’s early work on topoisomerase.

So I’m depressed because I’ll never understand them to the depth I understand enzymes, DNA, RNA etc. etc.

Also the complexity and elegance of these machines brings back my old worries about how they could possibly have arisen simply by chance with selection acting on them.  So I plan to republish a series of old posts about the improbability of our existence, and the possibility of a creator, which was enough to me get thrown off Nature Chemistry as a blogger.

Enough whining.

Here is why the Arp2/3 complex is interesting.  Actin filaments are long (1,000 – 20,000 Angstroms and thin (70 Angstroms).  It you want to move a cell forward by having them grow toward its leading edge, growing actin filaments would puncture the membrane like a bunch of needles, hence the need for side branches, making actin filaments a brush-like mesh which could push the membrane forward as it grows.

The Arp2/3 complex has a molecular mass of 225 kiloDaltons, or probably 2,250 amino acids or 16 thousand atoms.

Arp2 stands for actin related protein 2, something quite similar to the normal actin monomer so it can sneak into the filament. So can Arp3.  The other 5 proteins grab actin monomers and start them polymerizing as a branch.

But even this isn’t enough, as Arp2/3 is intrinsically inactive and multiple classes of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) are needed to stimulate it.  One such NPF family is the WASP proteins (for Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein) mutations of which cause the syndrome characterized by hereditary thrombocytopenia, eczema and frequent infections.

The paper’s pictures do not include WASP, just the 7 proteins of the complex snuggling up to an actin filament.

In the complex the Arps are in a twisted conformation, in which they resemble actin monomers rather than filamentous actin subunits which have a flattened conformation.  After activation arp2 and arp3 mimic the arrangement of two consecutive subunits along the short pitch helical axis of an actin filament and each arp transitions from a twisted (monomerLike) to a flattened (filamentLike) conformation.

So look at the pictures and the movies and enjoy the elegance of the work of the Blind Watchmaker (if such a thing exists).

If the right hand don’t get you, the left hand will

Do you know the source of the title?  I found it surprising.  Answer at the end.

Some cancer cells have elevated levels of an enzyme called PHosphoGlyceride DeHydrogenase (PHGDH, others have decreased levels.  Many cancers contain both types of cells.  Neither is good news.

Those cancers  with low levels of PHGDH  have slower growth.  That’s good news isn’t it?  No.  Such cells are more likely to metastasize.

Those with high levels of PHGDH are less likely to metastasize.  That’s good news isn’t it?  No. such cells grow faster.

So cancers with both types of cells are more aggressive.

Here’s how it works [ Nature vol. 605 pp. 617 – 617, 747 – 753 ’22 ].

PHGDH is on the pathway for synthesis of serine, an amino acid required for protein synthesis (like all of them).  So low levels of the enzyme result in less protein synthesis and less tumor growth.

So how is this bad?  PHGDH binds to another enzyme PFK (PhosphoFructoKinase) stabilizing it.  When PHGDH is low PFK enzyme levels are low, so the subsrate of PFK (fructose 6 phosphate) is diverted to making sialic acid, which modifies cell surface proteins making them more likely to migrate.

So blocking sialic acid synthesis reverses the effects of low PHGDH on cancer migration and metastasis — but it does potentiate cell proliferation.

You just can’t win

Things like this may explain other paradoxic and unexpected effects of enzyme blockade.

16 Tons by Tennessee Ernie Ford