Tag Archives: pure percept

The death of the pure percept — otoacoustic division

Rooming with 2 philosophy majors warps the mind even if it was 60 years ago.  Conundrums raised back then still hang around.  It was the heyday of Bertrand Russell before he became a crank.  One idea being bandied about back then was the ‘pure percept’ — a sensation produced by the periphery  before the brain got to mucking about with it.   My memory about the concept was a bit foggy so who better to ask than two philosophers I knew.

The first was my nephew, a Rhodes in philosophy, now an attorney with a Yale degree.  I got this back when I asked —

I would be delighted to be able to tell you that my two bachelors’ degrees in philosophy — from the leading faculties on either side of the Atlantic — leave me more than prepared to answer your question. Unfortunately, it would appear I wasn’t that diligent. I focused on moral and political philosophy, and although the idea of a “pure precept” rings a bell, I can’t claim to have a concrete grasp on what that phrase means, much less a commanding one.

 Just shows what a Yale degree does to the mind.

So I asked a classmate, now an emeritus prof. of philosophy and got this back
This pp nonsense was concocted because Empiricists [Es]–inc. Russell, in his more empiricistic moods–believed that the existence of pp was a necessary condition for empirical knowledge. /Why? –>
1. From Plato to Descartes, philosophers often held that genuine Knowledge [K] requires beliefs that are “indubitable” [=beyond any possible doubt]; that is, a belief counts as K only if it [or at least its ultimate source] is beyond doubt. If there were no such indubitable source for belief, skepticism would win: no genuine K, because no beliefs are beyond doubt. “Pure percepts” were supposed to provide the indubitable source for empirical K.
2. Empirical K must originate in sensory data [=percepts] that can’t be wrong, because they simply copy external reality w/o any cognitive “shopping” [as in Photoshop]. In order to avoid any possible ‘error’, percepts must be pure in that they involve no interpretation [= error-prone cognitive manipulation].
{Those Es who contend  that all K derives from our senses tend to ignore mathematical and other allegedly a priori K, which does not “copy” the sensible world.} In sum, pp are sensory data prior to [=unmediated by] any cognitive processing.

So it seems as though the concept is no longer taken seriously.

I’ve written about this before — as it applies to the retina — https://luysii.wordpress.com/2013/02/11/retinal-physiology-and-the-demise-of-the-pure-percept/

This time it involves the ear and eye movements.  Time for some anatomy.  Behind the eardrum are 3 tiny little bones (malleus, incus and stapes — the latter looking just like a stirrup with the foot plate pressed against an opening in the bone to communicate movement of the eardrum produced by sound waves to the delicate mechanisms of the inner ear).  There is a a tiny muscle just 1 millimeter long called the stapedius which stabilizes the stapes making it vibrate less protecting the inner ear against loud sounds.  There is another muscle called the tensor tympani which tenses the eardrum meaning that external sounds vibrate it less.  It protects us against loud sounds.

An article in PNAS (vol. 115 pp. 1309 – E1318 ’18) shows that just moving your eyes to a target causes the eardrum to oscillate.  Even more interesting, the eardrum movements occur 10 milliSeconds before you move your eye.  The oscillations last throughout the eye movement and will into subsequent periods of steady fixation.

It is well recognized in addition to the brain receiving nerve input from the inner ear, it sends nerves to the inner ear to control it.  So ‘the brain’ is controlling the sense organs proving input to it.  Of course the whole question of control in a situation with feedback is up in the air — see https://luysii.wordpress.com/2011/11/20/life-may-not-be-like-a-well-but-control-of-events-in-the-cell-is-like-a-box-spring-mattress/

As soon as feedback (or simultaneous influence) enters the picture it becomes like the three body problem in physics, where 3 objects influence each other’s motion at the same time by the gravitational force. As John Gribbin (former science writer at Natureand now prolific author) said in his book ‘Deep Simplicity’, “It’s important to appreciate, though, that the lack of solutions to the three-body problem is not caused by our human deficiencies as mathematicians; it is built into the laws of mathematics.” As John Gribbin (former science writer at Natureand now prolific author) said in his book ‘Deep Simplicity’, “It’s important to appreciate, though, that the lack of solutions to the three-body problem is not caused by our human deficiencies as mathematicians; it is built into the laws of mathematics.” The physics problem is actually much easier than the brain because we know the exact strength and form of the gravitational force. We aren’t even close to this for a single synapse.

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Why we imperfectly understand randomness the way we do.

The cognoscenti think the average individual is pretty dumb when it comes to probability and randomness. Not so, says a fascinating recent paper [ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 112 pp. 3788 – 3792 ’15 ] http://www.pnas.org/content/112/12/3788.abstract. The average joe (this may mean you) when asked to draw a random series of fifty or so heads and tails never puts in enough runs of heads or runs of tails. This leads to the gambler’s fallacy, that if an honest coin gives a run of say 5 heads, the next result is more likely to be tails.

There is a surprising amount of structure lurking within purely random sequences such as the toss of a fair coin where the probability of heads is exactly 50%. Even with a series with 50% heads, the waiting time for two heads (HH) or two tails (TT) to appear is significantly longer than for an alternation (HT or TH). On average 6 tosses will be required for HH or TT to appear while only an average of 4 are needed for HT or TH.

This is why Joe SixPack never puts in enough runs of Hs or Ts.

Why should the wait be longer for HH or TT even when 50% of the time you get a H or T. The mean time for HH and TT is the same as for HT and TH. The variance is different because the occurrences of HH and TT are bunched in time, while the HT and TH are spread evenly.

It gets worse for longer repetitions — they can build on each other. HHH contains two instances of HH, while alterations do not. Repetitions bunch together as noted earlier. We are very good at perceiving waiting times, and this is probably why we think repetitions are less likely and soon to break up.

The paper goes a lot farther constructing a neural model, based on the way our brains integrate information over time when processing sequences of events. It takes into consideration our perceptions of mean time AND waiting times. We average the two. This produces the best fitting bias gain parameter for an existing Bayesian model of randomness.

See, you’re not as dumb as they thought you were.

Another reason for our behavior comes from neuropsychology and physiological psychology. We have ways to watch the electrical activity of your brain and find out when you perceive something as different. It’s called mismatch negativity (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mismatch_negativity for more detail). It a brain potential (called P300) peaking .1 -.25 seconds after a deviant tone or syllable.

Play 5 middle c’s in a row followed by a d than c’s again. The potential doesn’t occur after any of the c’s just after the d. This has been applied to the study of infant perception long before they can speak.

It has shown us that asian and western newborn infants both hear ‘r’ and ‘l’ quite well (showing mismatch negativity to a sudden ‘r’ or ‘l’ in a sequence of other sounds). If the asian infant never hears people speaking words with r and l in them for 6 months, it loses mismatch negativity to them (and clinical perception of them). So our brains are literally ‘tuned’ to understand the language we hear.

So we are more likely to notice the T after a run of H’s, or an H after a run of T’s. We are also likely to notice just how long it has been since it last occurred.

This is part of a more general phenomenon — the ability of our brains to pick up and focus on changes in stimuli. Exactly the same phenomenon explains why we see edges of objects so well — at least here we have a solid physiologic explanation — surround inhibition (for details see — http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateral_inhibition). It happens in the complicated circuitry of the retina, before the brain is involved.

Philosophers should note that this destroys the concept of the pure (e.g. uninterpreted) sensory percept — information is being processed within our eyes before it ever gets to the brain.

Update 31 Mar — I wrote the following to the lead author

” Dr. Sun:

Fascinating paper. I greatly enjoyed it.

You might be interested in a post from my blog (particularly the last few paragraphs). I didn’t read your paper carefully enough to see if you mention mismatch negativity, P300 and surround inhibition. if not, you should find this quite interesting.

Luysii

And received the following back in an hour or two

“Hi, Luysii- Thanks for your interest in our paper. I read your post, and find it very interesting, and your interpretation of our findings is very accurate. I completely agree with you making connections to the phenomenon of change detection and surround inhibition. We did not spell it out in the paper, but in the supplementary material, you may find some relevant references. For example, the inhibitory competition between HH and HT detectors is a key factor for the unsupervised pattern association we found in the neural model.

Yanlong”

Nice ! ! !

Retinal physiology and the demise of the pure percept

Rooming with 2 philosophy majors warps the mind even if it was 50 years ago.  Conundrums raised back then still hang around.  It was the heyday of Bertrand Russell before he became a crank.  One idea being bandied about back then was the ‘pure percept’ — a sensation produced by the periphery  before the brain got to mucking about with it.   My memory about the concept was a bit foggy so who better to ask than two philosophers I knew.

The first was my nephew, a Rhodes in philosophy, now an attorney with a Yale degree.  I got this back when I asked —

I would be delighted to be able to tell you that my two bachelors’ degrees in philosophy — from the leading faculties on either side of the Atlantic — leave me more than prepared to answer your question. Unfortunately, it would appear I wasn’t that diligent. I focused on moral and political philosophy, and although the idea of a “pure precept” rings a bell, I can’t claim to have a concrete grasp on what that phrase means, much less a commanding one.

 Just shows what a Yale degree does to the mind.

So I asked a classmate, now an emeritus prof. of philosophy and got this back
This pp nonsense was concocted because Empiricists [Es]–inc. Russell, in his more empiricistic moods–believed that the existence of pp was a necessary condition for empirical knowledge. /Why? –>
1. From Plato to Descartes, philosophers often held that genuine Knowledge [K] requires beliefs that are “indubitable” [=beyond any possible doubt]; that is, a belief counts as K only if it [or at least its ultimate source] is beyond doubt. If there were no such indubitable source for belief, skepticism would win: no genuine K, because no beliefs are beyond doubt. “Pure percepts” were supposed to provide the indubitable source for empirical K.
2. Empirical K must originate in sensory data [=percepts] that can’t be wrong, because they simply copy external reality w/o any cognitive “shopping” [as in Photoshop]. In order to avoid any possible ‘error’, percepts must be pure in that they involve no interpretation [= error-prone cognitive manipulation].
{Those Es who contend  that all K derives from our senses tend to ignore mathematical and other allegedly a priori K, which does not “copy” the sensible world.} In sum, pp are sensory data prior to [=unmediated by] any cognitive processing.

So it seems as though the concept is no longer taken seriously.  To drive a stake through its heart it’s time to talk about the retina.

It lies in the back of our eyes, and is organized rather counter-intuitively.  The photoreceptors (the pixels of the camera if you wish) are the last retinal elements to be hit by light, which must pass through the many other layers of the retina to get to them.

We have a lot of them — at least 100,000,000 of one type (rods).  The nerve cells sending impulses back to the brain, are called ganglion cells, and there are about 1,000,000 in each eye.  Between the them are bipolar cells and amacrine cells which organize the information falling on the photoreceptors.

All this happens in something only .2 milliMeters thick.

The organization of information results in retinal ganglion cells responding to different types of stimuli.  How do we know?  Impale the ganglion cell with an electrode while still in the retina, and try out various visual stimuli to see what it responds to.

Various authorities put the number of retinal ganglion cell types in the mouse at 11, 12, 14, 19 and 22.  Each responds to a given type of stimulus. Here are a few examples:

The X-type ganglion cell responds linearly to brightness

Y cells respond to movement in a particular direction,

Blue-ON transmits the mean spectral luminance (color distribution) along the spectrum from blue to green.

From an evolutionary point of view, it would be very useful to detect motion.  Some retinal ganglion cells being responding before they should. How do we know this?  It’s easy (but tedious) to map the area of visual space a ganglion cell responds to — this is called its receptive field.  The responses of some anticipate the incursion of a moving stimulus — clearly this must be the way they are hooked to photoreceptors via the intermediate cells.

Just think about the way photoreceptors at the back of the spherical eye are excited by something moving in a straight line in visual space.  It certainly isn’t a straight line on the retinal surfaced.  Somehow the elements of the retina are performing this calculation and predicting where something moving in a straight line will be next.  Why  couldn’t the brain bedoing this?  Because it can be seen in isolated retinas with no brain attached.

Now for something even more amazing.  Each type of ganglion cell (and I’ve just discussed a few) tiles the retina. This means that every patch of the retina has a ganglion cell responding to each type of visual stimulus.  So everything hitting every area of the retina is being analyzed 11, 12, 14, 19 or 22 different ways simultaneously.

So much for the pure percept: it works for a digital camera, but not the retina.  There is an immense amount of computation of the visual input going right there, before anything gets back to the brain.

If you wish to read more about this — an excellent review is available, but it’s quite technical and not for someone coming to neuroanatomy and neurophysiology for the first time.  [ Neuron vol. 76 pp. 266 – 280 ’12 ]