Tag Archives: ICBM

Decoys and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)

It will take a detour through history to understand how lung cells try to defeat MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staph. Aureus), a very nasty bug.

Back in 1983 President Reagan proposed building an antiMissile defense system, which would shoot down Russian InterContinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) aimed at us.  Almost every scientist of note said it was impossible technically, because even if you could shoot down one (which they didn’t think you could), the Russians would send multiple decoy ICBMs without warheads.  It was an enormously expensive project and one the Russians had no hope of matching.  People still argue whether their attempt to match the US caused the Russians  to collapse — https://history.howstuffworks.com/history-vs-myth/who-won-cold-war1.htm — although collapse they did being overextended in Afghanistan (as we’ve been for 20 years).

But that’s exactly what A549 cells (derived from lung epithelium) do to fake out MRSA according to Nature vol. 579 pp. 260 – 264 ’20.  One of the reasons MRSA is so nasty is that it secretes a protein (alpha toxin) which forms holes in cells it binds to.  Well alpha toxin has a target it must bind to cause trouble, otherwise it would form holes in everything including itself.  The target is an enzyme on the surface of the cell called ADAM10, which is a protease found on the cell membrane.

You may not have thought of it, but when you diet, your cells eat themselves, rather than just sloughing of the cells in the fat you don’t like (love handles, double chin etc. etc.).  Wouldn’t that be nice though.  The process is called autophagy, in which membranes appear, surround small bits of each cell and them fuse with the lysosome, which breaks the contents down into metabolically useful material (sugars, fats, amino acids).  Some 41 different proteins are involved called ATG’s (for AuTophagy Gene).

But the autophagy genes can also be used to secrete stuff to the outside of the cell, and in fact that’s how the lung cells beat MRSA, they secrete zillions of little vesicles called exosomes (an entirely interesting newly discovered story, to be covered at another time), containing the target of alpha toxin — ADAM10.  Clever no?  The authors were so excited they invented a new word for it the defensosome. The ATG involved is called ATG16L1.  Previously the function of ATG16L1 appeared well defined, conjugating phosphatidylethanolamine to LC3, a ubiquitinLike molecule to form the autophagosome.  That’s probably nomenclature overload, but it’s worthwhile getting an appreciation of the complicated things going on inside our cells.