Tag Archives: glioblastoma multiforme

Progress has been slow but not for want of trying

Progress in the sense of therapy for Alzheimer’s disease and Glioblastoma multiforme is essentially nonexistent, and we could use better therapy for Parkinsonism. This doesn’t mean that researchers have given up. Far from it. Three papers all in last week’s issue of PNAS came up with new understanding and possibly new therapeutic approaches for all three.

You’ll need some serious molecular biological and cell physiological chops to get through the following.

l. Glioblastoma multiforme — they aren’t living much longer than they were when I started pracice 45 years ago (about 2 years — although of course there are exceptions).

The human ZBTB family of genes consists of 49 members coding for transcription factors. BCL6 is also known as ZBTB27 and is a master regulator of lymph node germinal responses. To execute its transcriptional activity, BCL6 requires homodimerization and formation of a complex with a variety of cofactors including BCL6 corerpressor (BCoR), nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR) and Silencing Mediator of Retinoic acid and Thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). BCL6 inhibitors block the interaction between BCL6 and its friends, selectively killing BCL6 addicted cancer cells.

The present paper [ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 114 pp. 3981 – 3986 ’17 ] shows that BCL6 is required for glioblastoma cell viability. One transcriptional target of BCL6 is AXL, a tyrosine kinase. Depletion of AXL also decreases proliferation of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo (in a mouse model of course).

So here are two new lines of attack on a very bad disease.

2. Alzheimer’s disease — the best we can do is slow it down, certainly not improve mental function and not keep mental function from getting worse. ErbB2 is a member of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) family. It is tightly associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s. Ras GTPase activation mediates EGF induced stimulation of gamma secretase to increase the nuclear function of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain (AICD). ErbB2 suppresses the autophagic destruction of AICD, physically dissociating Beclin1 vrom the VPS34/VPS15 complex independently of its kinase activity.

So the following paper [ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 114 pp. E3129 – E3138 ’17 ] Used a compound downregulating ErbB2 function (CL-387,785) in mouse models of Alzheimer’s (which have notoriously NOT led to useful therapy). Levels of AICD declined along with beta amyloid, and the animals appeared smarter (but how smart can a mouse be?).

3.Parkinson’s disease — here we really thought we had a cure back in 1972 when L-DOPA was first released for use in the USA. Some patients looked so good that it was impossible to tell if they had the disease. Unfortunately, the basic problem (death of dopaminergic neurons) continued despite L-DOPA pills supplying what they no longer could.

Nurr1 is a protein which causes the development of dopamine neurons in the embryo. Expression of Nurr1 continues throughout life. Nurr1 appears to be a constitutively active nuclear hormone receptor. Why? Because the place where ligands (such as thyroid hormone, steroid hormones) bind to the protein is closed. A few mutations in the Nurr1 gene have been associated with familial parkinsonism.

Nurr1 functions by forming a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXRalpha), another nuclear hormone receptor, but one which does have an open binding pocket. A compound called BRF110 was shown by the following paper [ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 114 pp. 3795 – 3797, 3999 – 4004 ’17 ] to bind to the ligand pocked of RXRalpha increasing its activity. The net effect is to enhance expression of dopamine neuron specific genes.

More to the point MPP+ is a toxin pretty selective for dopamine neurons (it kills them). BRF110 helps survival against MPP+ (but only if given before toxin administration). This wouldn’t be so bad because something is causing dopamine neurons to die (perhaps its a toxin), so BRF110 may fight the decline in dopamine neuron numbers, rather than treating the symptoms of dopamine deficiency.

So there you have it 3 possible new approaches to therapy for 3 bad disease all in one weeks issue of PNAS. Not easy reading, perhaps, but this is where therapy is going to come from (hopefully soon).

An obvious idea we’ve all missed

In 3+ decades as a clinical neurologist I saw several hundred unfortunate people with primary brain tumors. Not one of them was made of proliferating neurons. Not a single one. Most were tumors derived from glial cells (gliomas, glioblastomas, astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas) which make up half the cells in the brain. Some came from the coverings of the brain (meningiomas), or the ventricular lining (ependymomas).

A recent paper in Nature (vol. 543 pp.681 – 686 ’17) decided that it might be worthwhile to figure out why some organs rarely if ever develop cancer (brain, heart, skeletal muscle). Obvious isn’t it? But no one did it until now.

Most of these tissues are terminally differentiated (unlike, skin, lung, breast and gut) and don’t undergo cellular division. This means that they don’t have to copy their DNA over and over to replenish old and dying cells, and so they are much less likely to develop mutation.

They also use oxidative phosphorylation (a mitochondrial function) rather than glycolysis to generate energy. So they looked for genes that were upregulated in terminally differentiated muscle (not brain) cells relative to proliferating muscle cell precursors. Not a complicated idea to test once you think of it (but you and I didn’t). They found 5 such, and tested them for their ability to suppress tumor growth. One such (LACTB) decreased the growth rate of a variety of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo (e.g.– when transplanted into immunodeficient animals). Amazingly it seems to have no effect on normal cells.

Showing how little we understand the goings on inside our cells, why don’t you try to guess what LACTB given your (and our) knowledge of cellular biochemistry and physiology.

LACTB changes mitochondrial lipid metabolism, by reducing the rate of decarboxylation of mitochondrial phosphatidyl serine — say what?

Even when you know what LACTB is doing you’d be hard pressed to figure out how this effect slows cancer cell growth (and possibly prevents it from occuring at all).

So given our knowledge we’d have never found LACTB and having found it we still don’t know how it works.