Tag Archives: G Protein Coupled Receptor

Solid evidence for acupuncture at last

The early hype about acupuncture was so extreme (bathwater) that I stopped looking for the medical baby within.  Part of the hype was a reaction against all things western.

However when stimulation of a mouse at the knee point (ST36) decreases mortality due to exposure to lipopolysaccharide by 40%, it’s time to sit up and take notice [ Nature vol. 598 pp. 573 – 574, 641 – 645 ’21 ].

Not only that but the authors found the neurons responsible for the effect.  These neurons in the dorsal root ganglion express the G Protein Coupled Receptor (Prokr2) which is a  receptor for prokineticin, a secreted protein which increases gut motility.

Stimulation of these neurons (or the point behind the knee they innervate) produces anti-inflammatory effects.  Destruction of these neurons (by expressing diphtheria toxin in them) prevents low intensity stimulation of ST36 from dampening inflammation.

The paper even gives a possible explanation for some of the irreproducible results in the field.  High intensity of stimulation of ST36 activates the sympathetic system, while low intensity stimulation activates the parasympathetic nervous system.  The latter activates the vagus nerve which stimulates the adrenal medulla to produce catecholamines (which are anti-inflammatory).  So high intensity stimulation of the same site produces no useful therapeutic effect.

I never thought I’d see high quality work like this on acupuncture, but there it is.  More is sure to follow.

Do orphan G Protein Coupled Receptors self stimulate?

Self-stimulation is frowned on in the Bible — Genesis 38:8-10, but one important G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) may actually do it.  At least 1/3 of the drugs in clinical use manipulate GPCRs, and we have lots of them (at least 826/20,000 protein coding genes according to PNAS 115 p. 12733 ’18).  However only 360 or so are not involved in smell, and in one third of them  we have no idea what the natural ligand for them actually is (Cell vol. 177 p. 1933 ’19).  These are the orphan GPCRs, and they make a juicy target for drug discovery (if only  we knew what they did)

One orphan GPCR goes by the name of GPR52. It is found on neurons carrying the D2 dopamine receptor.  GPR52 binds to G(s) family of G proteins stimulating the production of CAMP (which would antagonize dopamine signaling), enough to stimulate (if not self-stimulate) any neuropharmacologist.

Which brings us to the peculiar behavior of GPR52 as shown by Nature vol. 579 pp. 142 – 147 ’20.  The second extracellular loop (ECL2) folds into what would normally be the binding site for an exogenous ligand (the orthosteric site).  Well, it could be protecting the site from inappropriate ligands.  But it isn’t, as removing or mutating ECL2 decreases the activity of GPR52 (e.g. less CAMP is produced).  Pharmacologists have produced a synthetic GPR52 agonist (called c17).  However it binds to a side pocket, in the 7 transmembrane region of the GCPR.   This is interesting in itself, as no such site is known in any of the other GPCRs studied.

Most GPCRs have some basal (constitutive) activity where they spontaneously couple to their G proteins, but the constitutive activity of GPR52 is quite high, so c17 only slightly increases the rise in CAMP that GPR52 normally produces.

This might be an explanation for other orphan GPCRs — like a hermaphrodite they could be self-fertilizing.

How little we really understand about proteins

How little we really understand about proteins.  We ‘know’ that the 7 transmembrane alpha helices of G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) all contain hydrophobic amino acids, so they dissolve in the (hydrophobic) lipids of the membrane.  GPCRs have been intensively by chemists, molecular biologists, pharmacologists and drug chemists with the net result that as of last year “128 GPCRs are targets for drugs listed in the Food and Drug Administration Orange Book. We estimate that ∼700 approved drugs target GPCRs, implying that approximately 35% of approved drugs target GPCRs.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5820538/

So if you changed the hydrophobic amino acids found in the 7 transmembrane segments of GPCRs to hydrophilic ones — all hell should break loose.

Wrong says Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 116 pp. 25668 – 25667 ’19 ].  The trick was to replace hydrophobic amino acids with hydrophilic ones with the same shape.

Thus leucine (L — single amino acid letter code) is replaced by glutamine (Q), Isoleucine (I) and Valine (V) is replaced by Threonine (T) and finally phenylalanine (F) is replaced by Tyrosine (Y).  They call this the QTY code.

Instead of destroying the structure of the GPCRs (CCR5 and CXCR4) they became water soluble, and bound their ligands CCL5 for CCR5  and CXCL12 for CXCR4 to the same extent.

Even more amazing, the QTYdesigned receptors exhibit remarkable thermostability in the presence of arginine and retained ligand-binding activity after heat treatment at 60 °C for 4 h and 24 h, and at 100 °C for 10 min.

I would never have expected this.  Would you?

Why did they even do it?  Because GPCR structures are hard to study. You either have to remove them en bloc from the membrane or dissolve them in other lipids so they don’t denature.  Why these two GPCR’s?    Because their ligands are proteins and can’t snuggle deep down inside the 7 alpha helices embedded in the membrane (they’re just too big), but bind to the outside surface.  CCL5 is an 8 kiloDalton protein (probably 80 amino acids, while CXCL12 has 93.  So just solublizing the GPCR without changing any of the amino acids external to the membrane, produces an object for study.

It would be amusing to do the same thing for a GPCR binding one of the monamines.  I doubt that they would bind, but I never would have believed this possible in the first place.