The uses and abuses of molarity — II

Just as the last post showed why a 1 Molar solution of a protein makes no sense at all, it is reasonable to ask what the highest concentration of a single protein in the cellular environment could be. Strangely, it was very hard for me to find an estimate of the percentage of protein mass inside a eukaryotic cell. There is one for the red blood cell, which is essentially a bag of hemoglobin. The amount is 33 grams/deciliter or 330 grams/liter. Hemoglobin (which is a tetramer) has a molecular mass of 64,000 Daltons.  So that’s 330/64000 = .5 x 10^-3 Molar.   So all proteins in our cells have a maximum concentration at most in the milliMolar range.

Before moving on, how do you think the red blood cell gets its energy?  Amazingly it is by anaerobic glycolysis, not using the oxygen carried by hemoglobin at all.  Why? If it used oxidative phosphorylation which runs on oxygen, it would burn up.  That’s why red cells do not contain mitochondria. 

On to Kd the dissociation constant.  At least 475 FDA approved drugs target G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), and our genome codes for some 826 of them.  Almost 500 of them code for smell receptors, and of the 300 or so not involved with smell 1/3 are orphans (as of 2019) with no known ligand.  There are GPCRs for all neurotransmitters which is why neurologists and psychiatrists are very interested in them. 

The Kd is defined as [ free ligand ][ free receptor ]/ [ ligand bound to receptor]  where all the  [  ]’s are concentrations in Moles/liter (e.g. Molar concentrations). 

There’s the rub.  Kd makes sense when ligand and receptor are swimming around in solution, but GPCRs never do this.  The working GPCR is embedded in our cell membrane which topologists tell us are 2 dimensional manifolds embedded in 3 dimensional space.  What does concentration mean in a situation like this?  Think of the entropy involved in getting all the GPCRs to lie in a single plane.  Obviously not so simple.  

People get around this by using radioactive ligands, and embedding GPCRs in membranes and measuring the time for ligands to bind and unbind (e.g. kinetics), but this is miles away from the physiologic situations — for details please see

2019 Apr 5; 485: 9–19.
 
The same is true for other proteins of interest — ion channels for the neurologist, hormone receptors for the endocrinologist, angiotension converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for the pandemic virus.  
 
I think that all Kd’s of membrane embedded receptors do is give you an ordinal ordering (e.g. receptor A binds ligand B tighter than ligand C ) but not a quantitative one.
 
Next up, how a Nobel prizewinner totally misunderstood the nature and applicability of molarity and studies on a two dimensional gas (complete with Pressure * Area = n * Gas Constant * Temperature).
 
 

 

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Comments

  • Steven Curry  On February 18, 2021 at 1:53 am

    The protein concentration for the mitochondrial matrix is said to be so high the the matrix is like paste or a thick gel, but I have not seen a number. Of course that is hundreds of different proteins.

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